A garden of quanta: Essays in honor of Hiroshi Ezawa by A Tonomura, T Nakamura, I Ojima

By A Tonomura, T Nakamura, I Ojima

This e-book is a suite of experiences and essays concerning the fresh wide-ranging advancements within the components of quantum physics. The articles have commonly been written on the graduate point, yet a few are obtainable to complex undergraduates. they'll function solid introductions for starting graduate scholars in quantum physics who're searching for instructions. facets of mathematical physics, quantum box theories and statistical physics are emphasised.

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Instead, Einstein turned to light, which also follows the curvature of space. Einstein predicted that when a ray of light passes near a massive body, like the sun, the ray will bend because the sun’s mass warps the surrounding space. This deflection could be measured when the sun’s own light was blocked during an eclipse. He even calculated how much the light should be deflected. During a solar eclipse in May 1919, two separate scientific expeditions—one on an island off west Africa, and the other in Brazil—photographed stars near the eclipsed sun.

Such materials have what is called a negative index of refraction, enabling them to deflect light rays in the direction opposite what optics would normally predict. All this should convince even an ancient Assyrian that modern-day science works its own kind of magic. 4 Good Heavens January 7, 1610 Galileo discovers moons of Jupiter n 1990, after eight years in the making, the Hubble space telescope was launched amid much fanfare and with great expectations. At long last, astronomers could bypass the dust, air currents, and water vapor in the Earth’s atmosphere that had hindered clear imaging of distant stars with ground-based telescopes.

How the lens curves determines the direction in which the light bends. If the lens curves inward, light will spread out, or diffuse, like a wave; this is called a concave lens. If it curves outward, the light will bend toward the center of the lens; this is called a convex lens. Let’s say an ancient Assyrian lights a torch and stands in the center of the town square on a dark night. The blazing torch will emit light uniformly in all directions, and that light bounces off any objects in the vicinity—perhaps a statue of Ashur, the capitol city’s patron god.

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