By Francois Crouzet
Книга A background of the eu financial system, 1000-2000 A heritage of the eu financial system, 1000-2000Книги Экономика Автор: Francois Crouzet Год издания: 2001 Формат: pdf Издат.:University of Virginia Press Страниц: 329 Размер: 2,4 ISBN: 0813920256 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:Considering Europe as an entire instead of as a mosaic of person states, François Crouzet offers right here an obtainable, enticing heritage of the ecu economic climate through the moment millennium. Stressing the typical monetary associations shared through the years via different areas of Europe and the networks of family members that experience associated them, Crouzet examines pan- ecu adjustments and integration instead of purely the actual studies of person international locations. A historical past of the ecu economic climate, 1000-2000 is going past addressing the ancient ramifications of exchange within the ecu financial system to surround difficulties corresponding to the diffusion of expertise, the migration of capital and hard work, diasporas and minorities, and nationwide variety. by means of stressing the historic origins of the force towards eu integration and its growth the entire solution to the beginning of the euro, Crouzet can provide an unique and complete review of eu financial heritage.
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Extra resources for A History of the European Economy, 1000-2000
Those for Europe to the Urals are from C. McEvedy and R. Jones, Atlas of World Population History, 1978. Maddison (1998) gives somewhat different ﬁgures for Europe, the former USSR excluded: Year AD Population in millions 50 34 1280 68 960 40 1500 72 1000 45 1650 91 Year AD Population in millions amy, contraception, abortion, infanticide, and desertion of children were banned; the church’s doctrine on marriage—that it be monogamous, exogamous, and indissoluble—was enforced. The nuclear family grew stronger and became dominant (except among Slavic people).
Indeed, from the late eleventh century, commercial expansion by Europeans went hand in hand with their military counteroffensive against Islam, especially the Crusades (and the reconquest of Sicily and Crete), which changed the political and economic balance of power to the advantage of Christians, so that Italian cities and merchants took over the longdistance Mediterranean trade. , Christians). Moreover, the Crusades stimulated shipbuilding—to transport crusaders and pilgrims—and the making of weapons, to the beneﬁt mainly of Italian cities.
The widening of markets through the growth of trade stimulated the diffusion of those—and other—inventions. Moreover, there was a growing and extensive division of labor in textile production, resulting in higher productivity and lower costs; this division was largely by gender: spinning was done by women; weaving, dyeing, and ﬁnishing by men. This was a major change from the early Middle Ages, when women, often gathered in the workshops (typically called gynecea) of rural estates, dominated textile work.