Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture by Lisa Gitelman

By Lisa Gitelman

Choice remarkable educational identify, 2007.

In Always Already New, Lisa Gitelman explores the novelty of recent media whereas she asks what it ability to do media heritage. utilizing the examples of early recorded sound and electronic networks, Gitelman demanding situations readers to consider the ways in which media paintings because the simultaneous topics and tools of old inquiry. featuring unique case stories of Edison's first phonographs and the Pentagon's first allotted electronic community, the ARPANET, Gitelman issues suggestively towards similarities that underlie the cultural definition of documents (phonographic and never) on the finish of the 19th century and the definition of files (digital and never) on the finish of the 20 th. for that reason, Always Already New speaks to provide issues in regards to the humanities up to to the emergent box of recent media stories. documents and records are kernels of humanistic notion, after all—part of and get together to the cultural impulse to maintain and interpret. Gitelman's argument indicates creative contexts for "humanities computing" whereas additionally providing a brand new standpoint on such conventional humanities disciplines as literary history.

Making large use of archival resources, Gitelman describes the ways that recorded sound and digitally networked textual content each one emerged as neighborhood anomalies that have been but deeply embedded in the reigning common sense of public lifestyles and public reminiscence. after all Gitelman turns to the area extensive net and asks how the background of the net is already being instructed, how the net may additionally withstand background, and the way utilizing the internet may be generating the stipulations of its personal historicity.

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Chapter 4 will look further into how this history of the Web is being told, as well as how the Web appears in some respects to resist history. Beyond CERN, the broader physics community made early use of the World Wide Web. For instance, the library at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) soon offered Web-based access to “preprints”—articles that are on their way through the peerreview process, but that haven’t appeared in print or electronically yet with the final imprimatur of a refereed journal.

Arnold half filled Chickering Hall in New York City, where his phonograph “told the story of Mary’s little lamb,” and then like Johnson’s phonograph, rendered a medley of speaking, shouting, and singing. ” 22 By the time the Speaking Phonograph Company swung into action, New York City, at least, had been pretty thoroughly introduced to Edison’s invention. Redpath complained (perhaps facetiously) that the city had endured more than three hundred demonstrations by the time of his own short season at Irving Hall, which was tepidly received.

The nation that had been declared or voiced into being a century before remained a noisy place. More specific audience response is difficult to judge. There were some parts of the country that simply were not interested. Mississippi and parts of the South were experiencing one of the worst yellow fever epidemics in recent memory. Audiences in New Orleans were reportedly disappointed that the machine had to be yelled into in order to reproduce well, and there were other quibbles with the technology once the newspapers had raised expectations to an unrealistic level.

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