An Economic History of Nineteenth-Century Europe: Diversity by Ivan Berend

By Ivan Berend

Why did a few nations and areas of Europe succeed in excessive degrees of financial development within the 19th century, whereas others have been left at the back of? This new transnational survey of the continent's fiscal improvement highlights the function of neighborhood adjustments in shaping each one country's fiscal course and end result. offering a transparent and cogent rationalization of the historic motives of development and backwardness, Ivan Berend integrates social, political, institutional and cultural elements in addition to accomplishing debates concerning the relative roles of data, the nation and associations. that includes boxed essays on key personalities together with Adam Smith, Friedrich record, Gustave Eiffel and the Krupp family members, in addition to short histories of recommendations resembling the steam engine, vaccinations and the co-operative method, the publication is helping to provide an explanation for the theories and macro-economic tendencies that ruled the century and their influence at the next improvement of the ecu financial system correct as much as the current day.

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27 However, I clearly recognize the significant findings and contributions of the new schools. They have challenged several old interpretations and have provoked inspiring debates. Applied economic theories, calculations and quantitative analyses, the creation of new databases on economic growth, demographics, and human development, and the school’s achievements in countless other areas enrich our knowledge of the past. Fortunately, one discerns a recent trend towards a new cooperation and an integration of the different schools.

The terms “agricultural revolution,” “industrial revolution,” “demographic revolution,” “banking revolution,” and “transportation revolution” (among others) have been broadly used in economic history,18 but recently they have been strongly challenged. Several scholars in recent decades have questioned the existence of a revolution in economic development at all. They challenge the term because “the noun ‘revolution’ is apt . . to suggest rapid change,” as Wrigley affirmed in his Ellen McArthur lectures at Cambridge (Wrigley, 1988, 11).

2004, 1, 2, 4). Others have expressed skepticism that one single method “can cut through the fog of history and illuminate our economic past once and for all. [We need] many approaches, including traditional ones . . none are powerful enough to warrant scorning the others” (Hohenberg, 2008, 342). 28 Major attempts have been made to present complex interpretations of the Industrial Revolution and the historical roots and cultural trends that led to it (Mokyr, 1999, 2002). These are positive signs of a new cooperation.

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