By Ivan T. Berend
A massive new background of financial regimes and financial functionality during the 20th century. Ivan T. Berend appears on the old improvement of the twentieth-century eu financial system, interpreting either its mess ups and its successes in responding to the demanding situations of this crisis-ridden and afflicted yet hugely winning age. The ebook surveys the ecu economy's chronological improvement, the most components of monetary development, and a few of the monetary regimes that have been invented and brought in Europe throughout the 20th century. Professor Berend indicates how the mammoth disparity among the eu areas that had characterised prior classes steadily started to disappear through the process the 20th century as an increasing number of nations reached a kind of related point of monetary improvement. This available ebook may be required studying for college kids in eu financial historical past, economics, and smooth eu background.
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Additional info for An Economic History of Twentieth-Century Europe: Economic Regimes from Laissez-Faire to Globalization
Without coal, which had been at a severe disadvantage during the nineteenth century, suddenly became energy-rich through the construction of hydroelectric power stations. Switzerland, Norway, and Italy profited greatly from these developments. Electricity conquered Europe relatively quickly. Paris declared itself to be the capitale ´electrique and 900,000 people surged to see the International Exhibition of electricity in November 1891. By 1906, nearly 3,000 communities were connected to the network (Beltran and Carr´e, 1991: 64, 103, 106, 124).
Want to leave their mark on the barbarian lands . . [T]hose who do not participate in this race will play a miserable role in the future. Colonization became a vital question of the great nations. (Treitschke, 1887) At the end of the nineteenth century the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel, a social-geographical Darwinist, coined the phrase Lebensraum (living space), a theory of the “struggle for space” (Ratzel, 1897), which became an ideological base for German expansionism. ” Russia did not turn toward faraway continents but expanded the empire in every possible direction, absorbing and “Russifying” neighboring territories.
By 1994, GE owned the entire company and invested roughly $600 million in modernizing Tungsram – certain production lines and branch subsidiaries were closed down, while production was concentrated on high-margin products. The number of employees was reduced from 20,000 to 9,000. Productivity increased by double-digit numbers annually during the 1990s. GE decided to concentrate a great part of its worldwide R&D capacities in Hungary – a unique step from a multinational company which invests in transforming or developing countries.